Also indicated on these maps is whether precipitation was occurring at the surface during the flight of the sonde. These observations come from the surface meteorological reports except at the land ISS sites where tipping bucket data were used. The tipping bucket instrument has a resolution of 0.254 mm and records data every minute. Precipation is indicated at the land ISS sites if any rain was recorded within one hour after the launch of the sonde. Precipitation is indicated by a thunderstorm symbol to the right of station circle. A "M" symbol indicates that the precipitation observation is missing at this time. An "I" symbol indicates that the sounding was interpolated from adjacent 6 hour periods.
Finally, to indicate regions of deeper convection, these maps contain stippled areas in which the brightness temperatures were colder than 235K. These areas were determined from hourly satellite data taken from the hour nearest to the sonde launch time. This digitized infrared (IR) Japanese GMS-4 satellite data at 11 km horizontal resolution were provided by T. Nakazawa. In this satellite dataset no information was available to the east of the dateline.